Automobile is a self-propelled vehicle that travels on land. It usually has four wheels. The word automotive comes from the Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (motion), referring to any form of self-powered vehicle. This term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry.
Automobile industry including passenger cars, trucks, farm equipment, and other commercial vehicles. By allowing consumers to commute long distances for work, shopping, entertainment and played a key role in the growth of ancillary industries, such as the oil and travel businesses.
Automobile Industry in India
In 2020, India was the fifth-largest auto market, with 3.49 million units combined sold in the passenger and commercial vehicles categories. It was the seventh-largest manufacturer of commercial vehicles in 2019.
The two wheelers segment dominate the market in terms of volume owing to a growing middle class and a young population.
Domestic automobiles production increased at 2.36% CAGR between FY16-20 with 26.36 million vehicles being manufactured in the country in FY20. Overall, domestic automobiles sales increased at 1.29% CAGR between FY16-FY20 with 21.55 million vehicles being sold in FY20.
Two wheelers and passenger vehicles dominate the domestic Indian auto market. Passenger car sales are dominated by small and mid-sized cars. Two wheelers and passenger cars accounted for 80.8% and 12.9% market share, respectively, accounting for a combined sale of over 20.1 million vehicles in FY20.
EV sales, excluding E-rickshaws, in India witnessed a growth of 20% and reached 1.56 lakh units in FY20 driven by two wheelers.
Main Components of Automobile
1. The Chassis
The chassis of an automobile incorporates all the major assemblies consisting of an engine, components of transmission system such as clutch, gearbox, propeller shaft, axles, a control system such as brakes and steering, and suspension system of the vehicle.
The chassis of an automobile has the frame, suspension system, axles, and wheel as the main components.
2. The Engine
The engine is the source of motive power to an automobile. it is a very important part of the automobile because in the absence of an engine, the automobile may not move at all, and its basic function of transporting passengers or goods would be defeated.
The engine nowadays, is invariably an internal combustion engine. This may be a spark-ignition engine consuming petrol as fuel. Alternatively, it could be a compression ignition engine using diesel as fuel.
3. The Transmission System
The transmission system transmits power developed by the engine to the road wheels. The power available as output from the engine is in the form of rotation of the crankshaft.
This movement is to be transferred to the road wheels to cause their rotary motion. Their rotary motion makes possible the movement of the vehicle.
The transmission system consists of different parts. These include clutch, gearbox, propeller shaft, differential and axle, live axle to be more precise.
4. The Body
The use of a separate frame to which the body structure is attached is now almost obsolete except for some applications for heavy-duty commercial vehicles.
Many heavy vehicles now use ‘sub-frames’ of simple construction to which the engine and gearbox are attached.
The sub-frame is supported on the mainframe and is fixed on it through some suitable rubber connections to isolate the engine vibrations. All the assembly units of the vehicles are attached to the body, which also acts the frame.
Top Automobile Companies in India
1. Tata Motors
- Passenger Vehicles: 6.3%
- Commercial Vehicle: 45.1%
The Company has a strong global network of 134 subsidiaries, associate companies and joint ventures, including the Jaguar Land Rover in the UK and the Tata Daewoo in South Korea. TML offers automotive products, ranging from one-tonne to 49-tonne Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) trucks, small, medium, and large buses and coaches and passenger vehicles.
TML is the leader in India’s CV market with a market share of 45.1% and sales of 4,68,788 vehicles in FY 2018-19 and has gained market share in the Medium and Heavy Commercial Vehicle (MHCV).
Tata Motors is the largest Indian automobile companies. TML’s market share in the PV segment increased by 60bps to 6.3% in FY 2018-19. It is one of the best car company in India.
2. Maruti Suzuki India Ltd
Market leader in the passenger vehicle segment in India. The Company was established in 1981. A joint venture agreement was signed between the Government of India and Suzuki Motor Corporation (SMC), Japan in 1982. The Company became a subsidiary of SMC in 2002. Maruti is the Second Largest Automobile Companies in India by the Revenue.
- Passenger Vehicles: 53 %
In terms of production volume and sales, the Company is now SMC’s largest subsidiary. SMC currently holds 56.21% of its equity stake. Maruti Suzuki largest car company in India based on Market share.
The Company has two state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities located in Gurugram and Manesar in Haryana, with a combined annual production capacity of ~1.58 million units per annum.
3. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., a mobility products and farm solutions provider, is the flagship company of the Mahindra Group. It is one of the leading car company in India. Since assembling the first vehicle in 1947, The Company has grown rapidly. It is the Third Largest Automobile Companies in India by Total Sales.
- CV: 25.3%
- Passenger Vehicles: 7.4%
- Tractor: 40.2%.
- UV: 25%
- LCV : 44.5%
Today, The Company offers a wide range of products and solutions ranging from SUVs to electric vehicles, pickups, commercial vehicles, tractors, two-wheelers, and construction equipment. It is one of the leading Indian automobile companies.
4. Hero MotoCorp Ltd
World’s largest two-wheeler manufacturer in 2001, in terms of unit volume sales in a calendar year, and has maintained the coveted title for the past 18 consecutive years. With over 90 million satisfied customers across the globe, it continues to champion socio-economic progress and empowerment through its range of products and services.
It became the only Indian two-wheeler company to set up a manufacturing base in Latin America when it started operations at its manufacturing facility in Colombia in 2016. The company is a part of Hero group.
Hero MotoCorp currently has an annual combined production capacity of around 9 million units of two-wheelers. This is the fourth largest automobile company among the Top 10 automobile manufacturing companies in India.
Jobs Available in Automotive Industry
1. Auto designer
Auto designers are responsible for developing the appearance of the interior and exterior of the car. They combine art, engineering and business to make the car visually pleasing, aerodynamic, functional and cost-effective. They use creativity to seamlessly incorporate all required mechanical, electrical, technical and comfort features into the vehicle.
2. Auto engineer
Auto engineers research, develop and design the technical systems in vehicles. They work with the development and design team to utilize sophisticated technology in a safe and user-friendly way in the vehicle’s navigation, warning, control and fuel systems. The auto engineer can continue improving upon previous technologies used in their vehicle or develop new systems based on the current market trends.
3. Auto body repair technician
Auto body repair technicians are responsible for safely and efficiently fixing car frames, suspensions, dents, windows and the wheel alignment after a vehicle has been damaged. They primarily focus on the exterior, non-mechanical components of the vehicle and make them look new again.
4. Process engineer
Process engineers handle the engineering of the plant production process by maintaining automated systems and resolving technical issues. The process engineers often work independently in overseeing the overall efficiency of the plant, but they also partner with plant personnel to understand what developments would benefit the production line the most.
5. Vehicle inspector
The vehicle inspector is responsible for ensuring vehicles meet safety standards reporting violations and recommending repairs. They check cars for damages and drive them to determine any malfunctions. The inspector also connects the vehicles to mechanical and electrical testing devices to examine the components for damage or incorrect settings. They review the cars emission levels and any customizations added to the vehicles and confirm the cars meet all required regulations.
6. Car salesperson
A car salesperson helps customers find the right car to purchase, explains the benefits and drawbacks of different models and begins the payment process. They build relationships with their customers to understand their vehicle needs and encourage repeat purchases with their dealership.
7. Quality testing engineer
Quality testing engineers are responsible for testing all components of a vehicle to ensure proper function and safety. They typically specialize in a specific area of the vehicle, such as crash testing, electronics, system integration or wireless connectivity. They develop a test case, execute the test and resolve any quality defects.
Ample career opportunities available in Automobile industry after graduation. The candidate should be spontaneous, eager to learn, challenge-seeker, time bound and dedicated to the work assigned to him on a timely basis and then, there is nothing that can prevent a candidate from being successful.