The phrase “Internet of things” was invented by Kevin Ashton who is a innovator and consumer sensor expert. He described the network connecting objects in the physical world through internet. Industrial revolution 4.0 talks about all kinds of connectivity concepts, which are the trend towards automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It covers cyber-physical systems, industrial internet of things, cloud computing, cognitive computing and artificial intelligence. In simple words IoT means connecting physical objects that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies. IOT is the technology behind smart homes, smart cities, and other related innovations. Internet of things aid to save energy, time and make things look easy and comfortable. It is utilized in all the sectors like agriculture, healthcare, automotive industry, and aerospace.
How does Internet of things operate?
In this stage sensors captures data from a particular process for example temperature, humidity, and other environment factors. Its’ the first step to collect data from the environment by something.
In this step the system gather data from the sensors and converts it from analog into digital format. This devices are connected to cloud through cellular, satellite, Wifi, Bluetooth, low-power wide-area networks or directly to the internet via ethernet.
It is the crucial step where the data is being digitized, aggregated, and further decrease the data volume before it drives to the data center. This could be very simple, such as checking that the required readings are within an acceptable range. Machine learning and artificial intelligence are widely used in this process.
In this step, the user is allowed to proactively check into the system, depending upon the application the user might also need to perform an activity and also manage the system. For example, the user might remotely alter the values via an app on their phone.
Have you ever gone to the store and forgotten to turn off your air conditioner, fan, or lamp and felt helpless that you couldn’t return home to turn it off? This is where the Internet of Things enters the picture. This technology is emerging all around the globe in short period of time and it will serve as a prompt for essential activities that you might forget in daily lives. In healthcare it will provide advanced facilities and treatments by reducing errors, cost reduction, and availability of specialists in remote locations. In agriculture it can provide precision farming, agricultural drones and smart greenhouse. In automotive industry by self driving car technology, hence this technology will bloom in future in all sectors.
How IoT Helps to Solve the Critical Global Issues
Climate change is one of the most threatening global issues, some of the the major concerns are energy consumption, pollution and carbon dioxide emission.
To contour excessive energy consumption asset condition monitoring systems, smart grids and smart meters are used to manage energy. Air pollution can be managed by using sensors like real-time monitoring of air quality, street lights to bicycles and public transport. Carbon dioxide can be reduced through smart traffic management and utilize it to analyze and understand traffic patterns.
Most of the regular water crisis are water conservation, management and distribution. This issues can be fixed by deploying the sensors in dams, reservoirs and tanks. The data obtained can be sent to a server at regular intervals in order to determine the amount of water utilized. Another way is to use smart sensors in the farm soil to measure the level of moisture and use the data to control moisture level by smart sprinkler.
Farmers can implement IoT by deploying sensors wherever necessary (e.g. on the ground, in water, in farm equipment, in tractors, etc.), to collect data about factors such as soil moisture and crop health.
The data collected can be stored on a server or cloud, which can be accessed by farmers on the go. This provides farmers with a smart, data-driven approach to maximize their yields and reduce waste.
Issues such as rapid population growth, dietary shifts, resource limitations and climate change have constantly proved to be the roadblocks for farmers who need to produce more with less. By implementing IoT and deploying sensors wherever necessary (e.g. on the ground, in water, in farm equipment, in tractors, etc.), to collect data about factors such as soil moisture and crop health. The data stored in the server can be used by farmers to maximize their yields and reduce waste.
Managing waste has become a topical issue in various parts, waste management services providers follow traditional methods which are inevitably inefficient and resource-intensive. IoT can resolve waste management by smart waste collection solutions which track waste levels and provide route optimization and operational analytics.
Essential skills Required
2]Knowledge about How Sensors Work
In almost every IoT application, sensors are involved in some manner or the other. IoT engineers must have an in-depth understanding of how sensors work.
One of the crucial elements in any infrastructure design is the user experience. It should be designed in such a way that an common person can also operate and trigger even the most complex operations easily.
IoT devices generate lots of data in real-time. So you must be able to manage vast data which is generated and analyze them. The organization may hire IoT skills professionals who can work with Big data.
Data storage is one of the major problems that IoT engineers face. A simple solution is cloud computing. Since the devices are connected to a network cloud computing helps to host the excess of data that the device has generated.
Hardware is the core of an IoT embedded system. They should have understanding of each component and their responses to the surrounding conditions. All of them are driven by mobile software which is made for smartphones, tablets, wearables, etc.
7]Security and GPS system
IoT engineering is filled with a lot of problems such as privacy issues, data loss, security, malicious attacks, etc. This is generally due to the complex nature and scalability of IoT applications. GPS systems have seen a huge increase in their demand since this technology has been widely developed.
Career domains in IOT
1]Data analytics: Data analysts in IOT takes specific information about specific topics and then interpret, and analyze them.
2]Network architect: The hardware setup may get complex due to huge chunks of sensors and wires. There might be a chance that connection may fail. Hence the call for the need of Network Architect.
3]Security engineer: One of the core problems of the Internet is safeguarding the users from hackers and malicious programs. Find and fix security flaws wherever the system fails and put the whole process of using an IoT Device under a smooth and secured connection bubble.
4]Hardware and Devices: Organizations need to modify their devices that should fit into the networks and operate accordingly. Though it’s mostly an integration of several sensors and transmitters, it is one of the core jobs in the IoT industry.
5]Cell and User Interface development: A customer may face difficulty to understand specifications of the device but would leverage his choices based on how comfortable it is to use it. An interactive and eye-catching UI that provides all the controls to customers and understanding.
6]Embedded Programs Engineer: Hardware is the most crucial part of your IoT device since it handles the software and control code. As an embedded programs engineer, your task would be to design several PCBs that match the utility of the problem.
7]Artificial Intelligence: AI and Machine Learning Skills become essential when the task involves big data analysis and deriving findings. To create smart applications over huge volumes of data, technologies mentioned in AI and ML help in the long run.
Internet of Things is the concept in which the virtual world of information technology connected to the real world of things. IOT is complex and poses some risk and is still evolving , some of the pioneers have started adopting this technology. It also helps to innovate new process and initiatives that would transform business lives and the world. There would many opportunities and challenges as more and more devices start to join the platform. IOT is the future in upcoming years where it is used in all sectors, from agriculture to aerospace. It helps to save time and energy, make things smart and comfortable. For now the best thing is to educate ourselves about what the IOT is and the potential impacts that can be seen on how we work and live.