Artificial intelligence (AI) is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions) and self-correction. Particular applications of AI include expert system, speech recognition and machine vision.
- The intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims ti create it
- It also shows ability, to design and study of intelligent agents
- No single goal of artificial intelligence , some say it is putting human mind into computers
Philosophy of AI
- Searle’s strong AI hypothesis : The appropriately programmed computers with the right inputs and outputs would thereby have a mind in exactly the same sense Human beings have made
- The brain can be simulated
- Technologically feasible to copy human brain directly into hardware and software and that such a simulation will be essentially identical to the originals
History of AI
The beginnings of modern AI can be traced to classical philosophers’ attempts to describe human thinking as a symbolic system. But the field of AI wasn’t formally founded until 1956, at a conference at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire, where the term “artificial intelligence” was coined.
Types of artificial intelligence
AI can be categorised into different types
- Type 1: Reactive machines. An example is Deep Blue, the IBM chess program that beat Garry Kasparov in the 1990s. Deep Blue can identify pieces on the chess board and make predictions, but it has no memory and cannot use past experiences to inform future ones. It analyzes possible moves — its own and its opponent — and chooses the most strategic move. Deep Blue and Google’s AlphaGO were designed for narrow purposes and cannot easily be applied to another situation.
- Type 2: Limited memory. These AI systems can use past experiences to inform future decisions. Some of the decision-making functions in self driving car are designed this way. Observations inform actions happening in the not-so-distant future, such as a car changing lanes. These observations are not stored permanently.
- Type 3: Theory of mind. This psychology term refers to the understanding that others have their own beliefs, desires and intentions that impact the decisions they make. This kind of AI does not yet exist.
- Type 4: Self-awareness. In this category, AI systems have a sense of self, have consciousness. Machines with self-awareness understand their current state and can use the information to infer what others are feeling. This type of AI does not yet exist
Examples of AI technology
Automation: What makes a system or process function automatically. For example, robotic process automation (RPA) can be programmed to perform high-volume, repeatable tasks that humans normally performed
Machine learning: The science of getting a computer to act without programming.deep learning is a subset of machine learning that, in very simple terms, can be thought of as the automation of predictive analytics
Machine vision: The science of allowing computers to see. This technology captures and analyzes visual information using a camera, analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing
Robotics: A field of engineering focused on the design and manufacturing of robots. Robots are often used to perform tasks that are difficult for humans to perform or perform consistently
Self-driving cars: These use a combination of computer vision, image recognition and deep learning to build automated skill at piloting a vehicle while staying in a given lane and avoiding unexpected obstructions, such as pedestrians